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Configuring Selenium WebDriver

Selenium WebDriver lets you run your tests in a variety of browsers, each with a variety of configuration options. In this section we will look at how to configure your WebDriver driver in Serenity.

The simplest way to configure the driver you want to use is in your project's serenity.conf file (which you will find in src/test/resources folder).

Basic configuration options go in the webdriver section. For example, to run your tests with Chrome, you set the webdriver.driver property to "chrome":

webdriver {    driver = "chrome"}

All of the standard WebDriver browsers are supported:

Chromechromewebdriver.driver = "chrome"
Firefoxfirefoxwebdriver.driver = "firefox"
Microsoft Edgeedgewebdriver.driver = "edge"
Internet ExplorerIEwebdriver.driver = "IE"
Safarisafariwebdriver.driver = "safari"

Configuring the WebDriver drivers#

When you run a WebDriver test against almost any driver, you need an OS-specific binary file to act as an intermediary between your test and the browser you want to manipulate. The main drivers, and where you can download them from, are listed below:

BrowserDriverLocationSystem Property
Microsoft Edgemsedgedriver
Internet ExplorerIEDriverServer

Automatic driver downloads#

By default, Selenium automatically downloads and installs the appropriate driver binaries for the specified driver.

Configuring driver binaries by hand#

If you cannot or do not want to download the WebDriver binaries automatically using WebDriverManager (for example, if you are in a corporate network which does not have access to the WebDriverManager binaries), you can download the binaries and configure them directly in the serenity.conf file.

In this case you need to either have the correct driver binary on your system path, or provide the path to the binary using the system property shown in the table above. For example, your serenity.conf file might contain the following:


However, adding a system path to your file is poor practice, as it means your tests will only run if the specified directory and binary exists, and that you are running the tests on the correct operating system. This obviously makes little sense if you are running your tests both locally, and on a CI environment.

A more robust approach is to have your drivers in your source code, but have different drivers per OS. Serenity allows you to pass driver-specific properties to a driver, as long as they are prefixed with drivers.os. For example, the following line will configure the if you are running your tests under windows.

drivers {  windows { = src/test/resources/webdriver/windows/chromedriver.exe  }

You can easily configure different binaries for different operating systems like this:

drivers {  windows { = src/test/resources/webdriver/windows/chromedriver.exe  }  mac { = src/test/resources/webdriver/mac/chromedriver  }  linux { = src/test/resources/webdriver/linux/chromedriver  }}

This approach also works when you have more than one driver to configure. Suppose you need to run tests on three environments, using Firefox or Windows. One convenient approach is to store your drivers in a directory structure under src/test/resources similar to the following:

src/test/resources└── webdriver    β”œβ”€β”€ linux    β”‚   β”œβ”€β”€ chromedriver    β”‚   └── geckodriver    β”œβ”€β”€ mac    β”‚   β”œβ”€β”€ chromedriver    β”‚   └── geckkodriver    └── windows        β”œβ”€β”€ chromedriver.exe        └── geckodriver.exe

This means that your tests will not need the webdriver binaries to be installed on every machine.

The corresponding serenity.conf configuration for both browsers and each operating system would look like this:

drivers {  windows { = src/test/resources/webdriver/windows/chromedriver.exe    webdriver.gecko.driver = src/test/resources/webdriver/windows/geckodriver.exe  }  mac { = src/test/resources/webdriver/mac/chromedriver    webdriver.gecko.driver = src/test/resources/webdriver/mac/geckodriver  }  linux { = src/test/resources/webdriver/linux/chromedriver    webdriver.gecko.driver = src/test/resources/webdriver/linux/geckodriver  }}

Specifying W3C properties#

W3C capabilities are a standard set of driver features that every drive implementation must support. You can configure W3C capabilities in the wenbdriver.capabilities section of your serenity.conf file, as shown here:

webdriver {  capabilities {    browserName = "Chrome"    browserVersion = "103.0"    platformName = "Windows 11"    acceptInsecureCerts = true  }}

You can define timeouts in a dedicated subsection like this:

webdriver {  capabilities {    browserName = "Chrome"    browserVersion = "103.0"    platformName = "Windows 11"    timeouts {      script = 30000      pageLoad = 300000      implicit = 2000    }  }}

You can also define proxy configuration details in the proxy section:

webdriver {  capabilities {    browserName = "Chrome"    browserVersion = "103.0"    platformName = "Windows 11"    proxy {      proxyType = "30000"      httpProxy = "myproxy.myorgcom:3128"    }  }}

Configuring Chrome#

You can use the special "goog:chromeOptions" capability to define any of the ChromeDriver options

webdriver {  capabilities {    browserName = "Chrome"    browserVersion = "103.0"    platformName = "Windows 11"    screenResolution = "1280x1024"
    "goog:chromeOptions" {      args = [ "window-size=1000,800", "headless" ]      binary = ${HOME}/path/to/chromedriver      detach = true      localState = {        cart-contents = [1,2,3]      }    }  }}

In older versions of Serenity, we used the chrome.switches property to define Chrome options. This property is not supported as of version 3.3.0, so you should use the W3C standard "goog:chromeOptions" capability for this instead.

Configuring Chromedriver arguments#

You can define ChromeDriver arguments in the args property to set various startup options. For example, to start Chrome in maximized mode, you can use the start-maximized argument. Or if you want to run Chrome in headless mode, you can use the "headless" argument:

webdriver {  capabilities {    ...    "goog:chromeOptions" {      args = [ "start-maximized", "headless"]    }  }}

Some of the more commonly used Chrome startup arguments include:

start-maximizedOpens Chrome in maximize mode
incognitoOpens Chrome in incognito mode
headlessOpens Chrome in headless mode
disable-extensionsDisables existing extensions on Chrome browser
disable-popup-blockingDisables pop-ups displayed on Chrome browser
make-default-browserMakes Chrome default browser
versionPrints chrome browser version
disable-infobarsPrevents Chrome from displaying the notification β€˜Chrome is being controlled by automated software

Specifying the Chromedriver binary#

Serenity uses WebDriverManager, so you rarely need to specify the chromedriver binary yourself. However if you need to, you can do this in the capabilities section

webdriver {  capabilities {    ...    "goog:chromeOptions" {      binary = /path/to/chromedriver    }  }}

Note that you can use environment variables in TypesafeConfig to make your path more portable, e.g.

webdriver {  capabilities {    ...    "goog:chromeOptions" {      binary = ${HOME}/path/to/chromedriver    }  }}

Blocking popup-windows#

By default, ChromeDriver configures Chrome to allow pop-up windows. If you want to block pop-ups (i.e., restore the normal Chrome behavior when it is not controlled by ChromeDriver), you can use the excludeSwitches option as follows:

webdriver {  capabilities {    ...    "goog:chromeOptions" {      excludeSwitches = ["disable-popup-blocking"]    }  }}

Configuring Chrome extensions#

You can define Chrome extensions to be used by using the extensions property in the goog:chromeOptions section, e.g.

webdriver {  capabilities {    ...    "goog:chromeOptions" {      extensions = [src/test/resources/sample-extensions/custom-curser-extension.crx, src/test/resources/sample-extensions/dark-reader-extension.crx]  }}

Configuring Chrome preferences#

Some driver behaviour is specified in the Chrome preferences. For example, a common usage of the preferences section is to define a download directory, like this:

webdriver {  capabilities {    ...    "goog:chromeOptions" {      prefs {        download.default_directory = ${HOME}/some/download/dir        download.prompt_for_download = true      }  }}

Configuring timeouts#

You can configure driver timeouts using standard W3C capabilities like this (all values are in milliseconds):

webdriver {    capabilities {        timeouts {           script = 30000           pageLoad = 300000           implicit = 0       }   }}

Configuring ChromeDriver logging preferences#

You can also configure the Chrome logging preferences using the goog:loggingPrefs option.

Condiguring Microsoft Edge#

Microsoft Edge is a Chromium driver, so the configuration is very similar to Chrome. The main difference is the use of "ms:edgeOptions'" instead of "goog:chromeOptions". A typical configuration is shown below:

webdriver {  capabilities {    browserName = "MicrosoftEdge"    "ms:edgeOptions" {      args = ["test-type", "ignore-certificate-errors", "headless",        "incognito", "disable-infobars", "disable-gpu", "disable-default-apps", "disable-popup-blocking"]    }  }}

Configuring Firefox#

Firefox uses the "moz:firefoxOptions" capability to define browser-specific option. A sample configuration is shown below:

webdriver {  capabilities {    browserName = "firefox"
    timeouts {      implicit = 1000      script = 1000      pageLoad = 1000    }    pageLoadStrategy = "normal"    acceptInsecureCerts = true    unhandledPromptBehavior = "dismiss"    strictFileInteractability = true
    "moz:firefoxOptions" {      args = ["-headless"],      prefs {        "javascript.options.showInConsole": false      },      log {"level": "info"},    }  }}

Configuring multiple environments

You can configure multiple driver configurations by using the environments section, as shown below. Then simply set the environment system property to the corresponding environment to use these settings, e.g.

mvn clean verify -Denvironment=chrome

A sample environments section is shown here:

environments {  chrome {    webdriver {      driver = chrome      autodownload = true      capabilities {        browserName = "chrome"        acceptInsecureCerts = true        "goog:chromeOptions" {          args = ["test-type", "ignore-certificate-errors", "headless", "--window-size=1000,800"            "incognito", "disable-infobars", "disable-gpu", "disable-default-apps", "disable-popup-blocking"]        }      }    }  }  edge {    webdriver {      capabilities {        browserName = "MicrosoftEdge"        "ms:edgeOptions" {          args = ["test-type", "ignore-certificate-errors", "headless",            "incognito", "disable-infobars", "disable-gpu", "disable-default-apps", "disable-popup-blocking"]        }      }    }  }  firefox {    webdriver {      capabilities {        browserName = "firefox"        pageLoadStrategy = "normal"        acceptInsecureCerts = true        unhandledPromptBehavior = "dismiss"        strictFileInteractability = true
        "moz:firefoxOptions" {          args = ["-headless"],          prefs {            "javascript.options.showInConsole": false          },          log {"level": "info"},        }      }    }  }}